Pen-and-ink drawing is not, as might be imagined, a comparatively recent form of artistic work, for in the great galleries of Europe one may find many interesting specimens of pen work made by Angelo, Raphael, Durer, Titian and others of the great masters. The manner of handling and style of pen work has changed, however, with modern inventions in the way of reproductive methods. The very spirit of pen work has changed only within a comparatively few years.
Continue Pencil Drawing. Even after pen-and-ink drawing is taken up, practice with the pencil should be continued. The longer the pupil draws with the pencil and crayon the better. They are the most convenient and effective utensils at the artist's command. Their frequent use should never be discarded.
Inability to make corrections easily in inked lines will discourage the student who is conscientious. Pencil and crayon are valuable because mistakes can be easily corrected at the time they are made. Before a mistake made with a pen can be rectified the ink must be quite dry, and the erasures must be made carefully, especial pains being taken not to disturb or roughen the surface of the paper or cardboard. Erasure may be made with a sharp knife or ink eraser; or the misplaced lines may be hidden or obscured by the use of a glaze of Chinese white.
Outline First With Pencil. Some teachers advocate drawing with pen-and-ink without the aid of a preliminary sketch with pencil. Writes one such teacher, "Practice drawing these (referring to certain subjects to be drawn) as rapidly as you can, without using the pencil in any way, using ink as a medium, you will be more apt to observe with care the exact character of each touch than if you employed the pencil, whose marks can be so easily erased. This will, in time, give you greater confidence and facility of hand than can be had with either pencil or crayon."
The quoted advice is wrong. The beginner should draw as slowly as possible. The writer is positive in these statements, and he is making them after many years of experience spent almost exclusively in making pen drawings for all sorts of practical purposes.
Elementary Line Exercises. All lines should be drawn on double the scale shown in this work. Lack of space makes great reduction necessary.
Lines should be drawn as heavy as those immediately below.