DRAWING IN CHARCOAL AND CRAYON
Charcoal is a material that can be used with striking effect and on a large scale. It is also adapted to the most careful work, where a high degree of finish is required. Charcoal is especially valuable as a medium, for the reason that it can be so easily erased. Charcoal is used in the principal art schools of the world for drawing from the cast and from the human figure. It is well adapted to sketching from nature. By its use, the most charming landscapes and marine effects may be obtained. For monochrome, moonlight effects, it is not to be surpassed. On pages 192-3-4-5 several examples of moonlight scenes are given which may be used for exercise in charcoal, crayon or pencil.
Two Methods of Drawing in Charcoal Prevail. First, that in which the charcoal point is used alone, the shading being put in with lines which are not blended, without the use of the stump or rubbing of any kind.
Second, that in which the charcoal is blended with the stump or a soft rag, no lines being visible in the modeling. This manner of drawing is most popular in schools, and with reason, for it is susceptible of higher finish than the first method described. It is by this means that charcoal and crayon portraits are drawn.
Paper for Charcoal and Crayon Drawing. For general purposes, the rough charcoal paper, made especially for the purpose, is the best.
Crayon. Black crayon comes in several numbers or degrees of hardness and is to be had in two forms. First, the wooden pencils, and also in the shape of short sticks. The latter should be fastened in a crayon holder while using. For most purposes, crayon No. 2 is sufficient.
In addition to this, a fine, black, powdered crayon, called "sauce crayon," may be used. It comes in handy when large masses of dark are necessary and is rubbed on with a stump.
Stumps are made of leather, chamois skin and paper. For school purposes, paper stumps will be all that need be used. The stumps come in two forms, one made in various sizes of rough paper, measuring from one-fourth to an inch or more in diameter.
The other form of paper stump is known as the tortillon, and is made of strips of paper rolled to a point, like spills. It is used in detail work, where the other form of stump would be too coarse.